Envío gratis en la RM en compras sobre $60.000 y a todo Chile en compras sobre $70.000 Envío gratis en la RM en compras sobre $60.000 y a todo Chile en compras sobre $70.000

Wellness Blog




It has been quite some time since the COVID pandemic hit us with full force, affecting our health and lifestyle in various areas. Some of these effects have been powerful with consequences that have yet to be revealed in the months and years to come.

Although social restrictions are disappearing and daily life is returning, for many people who have suffered from the virus, life is not returning to normal, as they are left with the long-term effects of the infection, the so-called “COVID dragged on".

The scientific community has come together in a combined effort to understand the triggers and drivers of long COVID symptoms, and while there is still much to discover and understand, this effort will hopefully produce additional research to help those suffering from the illness. consequences of “long COVID”.

Prolonged COVID, is it a new condition?

We delve into research to find out what happens in the body during and after infection, to help us understand the factors underlying some of the symptoms we see and to guide us towards nutritional and lifestyle interventions that may be beneficial .

Symptoms of long COVID

Although there is no clear definition or diagnostic criteria so far, long COVID has been defined as persistent symptoms and/or late or prolonged complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of acute COVID-19 symptoms.

The largest systemic review and meta-analysis to date has identified more than 50 long-term effects associated with COVID-19. Among them, the most common include:

- Fatigue

- Difficulty breathing

- Headaches

- Joint pain

- Attention disorder

- Chest pains

- Hair loss

- Reduced kidney function.

Almost half of patients also notice a decrease in their quality of life. In the UK alone, an estimated 1.1 million (1 in 5 who tested positive) reported that symptoms persisted more than four weeks after first suspected infection.

Why are some people left with symptoms after contracting the virus?

The key is how our body reacts to a virus. In response to an acute infection, the immune system generates a powerful inflammatory response, this can leave us inflamed, generate tissue damage and other expected consequences that occur after an illness. But of course not everyone is this affected, there appears to be an association between the risk of developing long COVID symptoms and pre-existing conditions such as respiratory illnesses, higher body mass index, older age and ethnic minority individuals.


Inflammation is a key tool in our immune system's equipment when fighting infections or repairing tissue after injury. For our body, it is essential to fight a pathogen, but unfortunately this can sometimes get out of control and cause alterations, even in the long term. This is more likely to happen in predisposed individuals, being influenced by factors such as; genetic susceptibility, age, nutritional status, exposure to viral load and route of infection, presence of other infections, pre-existing chronic diseases.

In cases of COVID 19, it has been shown that many people have various signs of the disease process some time after the acute phase of infection. Tests often show elevated and altered inflammatory markers; interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum ferritin, histamine, C-reactive protein (CRP), mitochondrial protein alterations and antioxidants [e.g. e.g. peroxiredoxin 3 (PRDX3) and carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS1)], along with an abnormal chest x-ray/computed tomography (CT) scan.

STEP 1 - Control inflammation

Implement an anti-inflammatory diet, providing real, varied, colorful foods, plants, fiber, natural fats, quality proteins and "super foods" such as turmeric, ginger, green tea and pomegranate. In addition, it is ideal to complement with nutrients and plants with anti-inflammatory effects, such as curcumin and omega 3 to reach doses with a therapeutic effect.

Increase your intake of antioxidants, such as vitamins C , E, selenium , beta-carotene, glutathione to help quench free radicals, reduce tissue damage and improve energy levels associated with inflammation.

Tired all the time?

Most people cite fatigue as the main symptom. A study conducted in the United Kingdom showed that women (54.3%) suffered from moderate/severe fatigue more prevalent than men (29.6%). This fatigue usually coincides with dyspnea (low oxygen levels), alterations in cognitive function, sleeping difficulties, psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Alterations at the mitochondrial and oxidation level suggest continuous damage to mitochondria and tissues.

The prevalence in fatigue symptoms is in line with previous epidemics of SARS, H1N1 and Ebola, in which a large proportion of fatigued patients have qualified for a diagnosis of Myalgia Encephalomyelitis or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). The symptoms observed in post-COVID-19 patients partly resemble ME or CFS, which are characterized by at least six months of fatigue and exhaustion, driven by factors such as hormonal and nerve dysfunction, inflammation, compromised mitochondria, and stress. oxidative.

STEP 2 - Support mitochondria for energy production

The first step to restoring mitochondrial health and improving energy levels is to provide antioxidants such as vitamin C or Selenium , in addition to ensuring good intake of nutrients such asB complex vitamins , CoQ10, magnesium , alpha lipoic acid (ALA) , carnitine and D-ribose, all involved in mitochondrial energy production.

Nervous system and brain function

Ongoing inflammation, as well as mitochondrial damage, can have a profound effect on our nervous system and brain function. Our brain uses up to 20% of all the energy that is produced, so if that vital function is compromised, we can see a decrease in brain function that can affect us in many ways. Similar to chronic post-acute-SARS syndrome, long COVID is also associated with depression, sleep disturbances, loss of sense of smell or taste, headaches and migraines, and an increased risk of stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and dementia. .

These symptoms are related to inflammation in the brain and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), high amounts of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1beta, IFN-gamma), cerebrovascular disease, low oxygen supply, medication side effects and the emotional aspect of having a serious illness. It has also been hypothesized that headaches may be caused by disrupted CSF drainage which could cause increased intracranial hypertension.

Women with a history of psychiatric illness appear to be more affected by post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety, especially if they have spent a long time in the hospital.

Beyond the virus itself, the impact of isolation, lack of social contact and stress on our bodies should not be underestimated.

STEP 3 - Reduce stress and support brain function

Nourish your nervous system with real foods such as vegetables, fruits, eggs, olive oil, seeds and nuts, which provide a wide variety of vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients and antioxidants to your body. Consider complementing all this with a good Methylated Multinutrient supplement, Essential Fatty Acids and Probiotics of good purity and bioavailability, in order to provide adequate doses of nutrients (such as B complex vitamins and omega 3) that play a key role in managing inflammation, energy levels and cognitive function.

It is essential to optimize sleep quality and control stress levels. Doing outdoor activities, practicing breathing exercises, movement or recreational routines will have great benefits for mental health and the immune system. If diet and lifestyle interventions are not enough to manage stress and anxiety, consider using calming herbs such as lemon balm, theanine, and chamomile.

lung damage

Ongoing inflammation, intensive medical treatments, and the virus itself, can lead to lung tissue damage and fibrosis, making the lungs less efficient at oxygenating the body. Therefore, shortness of breath is another post-infectious characteristic.

Those who require ICU admission and respiratory support, or who have lung problems before infection, are older, have a higher body mass index, and are ethnic minorities, are also more likely to experience shortness of breath after hospital discharge. .

Lung tissue contains a number of protective antioxidants including the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. During an infection, its levels can be depleted, leading to oxidative stress and increasing the risk of complications. People with pneumonia often have reduced antioxidant status and it has been suggested that supplementation with antioxidants (such as selenium andvitamin C ) may be helpful in reducing the severity of the disease.

STEP 4 - Support lung function

N-acetylcysteine ​​(NAC) is a drug that protects lung tissue from damage and has been shown to improve symptoms and prevent recurrences of bronchitis. Selenium supplementation increases levels of glutathione peroxidase (antioxidant enzyme) and may reduce the severity of pneumonia. Deep, slow nasal breathing is an excellent way to simultaneously increase blood oxygenation, improve sleep quality, reduce anxiety and depression, which can help restore energy levels after infection.


It has been shown that those who have suffered from COVID-19 could have alterations in the intestinal microbiota, presenting a greater abundance of opportunistic pathogens (including Streptococcus, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces), Candida albicans, Candida aurisand Aspergillus flavus, and a lower abundance of beneficial bacteria (e.g. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria) . These alterations can also alter the respiratory tract through the mucosal immune system the "gut-lung axis." Additionally, the virus can directly damage the intestinal mucosa and cause digestive symptoms, but more research is needed to confirm this.

Another concern for the gut microbiome is the long-term effect of using large amounts of detergents, household cleaning products, and hand sanitizers, which is linked to a higher incidence of inflammatory conditions and alterations in the composition of gut microorganisms. .

STEP 5 - Support gut bacteria and digestion

An excellent starting point for supporting gut function and the microbiome is to increase the levels of beneficial bacteria in your diet, either through foods such as sauerkraut, kimchi, kombucha or by using a stable, clinically effective and well-balanced probiotic supplement. investigated. It is also important to consume soluble fiber, which will feed the beneficial intestinal bacteria, add volume to the stool and promote the elimination of toxins.

While research is still ongoing, what has already been discovered has many similarities to other infections and chronic conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome. Each person's long COVID symptoms are likely to be different, driven by their genetic predisposition, health status before infection, nutrient deficiencies, and treatment used during infection.

Identifying the underlying factors for persistent post-infection symptoms and how they can affect our physical and mental health makes it easier to implement a personalized nutrition and lifestyle plan that can help people feel better and regain their quality of life.

If you have questions or want to know more about the subject, you can write to nutricion@biocarechile.cl and our team of professionals will provide you with personalized advice.


Valeria Riquelme


  1. Nalbandian A, Sehgal K, Gupta A, et al. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Nat Med. 2021;27(4):601-615. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01283-z
  2. Datta SD, Talwar A, Lee JT. A Proposed Framework and Timeline of the Spectrum of Disease Due to SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Illness beyond Acute Infection and Public Health Implications. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2020;324(22):2251-2252. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.22717
  3. Raveendran A V. Long COVID-19: Challenges in the diagnosis and proposed diagnostic criteria. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev. 2021;15(1):145-146. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.12.025
  4. Lopez-Leon S, Wegman-Ostrosky T, Perelman C, et al. More than 50 Long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis Correspondence to. medRxiv. Published online January 30, 2021:2021.01.27.21250617. doi:10.1101/2021.01.27.21250617
  5. Carfì A, Bernabei R, Landi F, Group for the GAC-19 P-ACS. Persistent Symptoms in Patients After Acute COVID-19. JAMA. 2020;324(6):603. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12603
  6. Turkmen D, Altunisik N, Sener S, Colak C. Evaluation of the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on hair diseases through a web-based questionnaire. Dermatol Ther. 2020;33(6):e13923. doi:10.1111/dth.13923
  7. Rivetti N, Barruscotti S, Policlinico San Matteo F, di Dermatologia A, Clinico Beato Matteo I. MANAGEMENT OF TELOGEN EFFLUVIUM DURING THE COVID-19 EMERGENCY: PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS. doi:10.1111/dth.13648
  8. Robbins-Juarez SY, Qian L, King KL, et al. Outcomes for Patients With COVID-19 and Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Kidney Int Reports. 2020;5(8):1149-1160. doi:10.1016/j.ekir.2020.06.013
  9. Stevens JS, King KL, Robbins-Juarez SY, et al. High rate of renal recovery in survivors of COVID-19 associated acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. PLoS One. 2020;15(12 December). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0244131
  10. Huang C, Huang L, Wang Y, et al. 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study. Lancet. 2021;397(10270):220-232. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32656-8
  11. What might long COVID mean for the nation's health? | The Health Foundation. Accessed May 12, 2021. https://www.health.org.uk/news-and-comment/blogs/w...
  12. Neufeld KJ, Leoutsakos JMS, Yan H, et al. Fatigue Symptoms During the First Year Following ARDS. Chest. 2020;158(3):999-1007. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.03.059
  13. Ahmed H, Patel K, Greenwood DC, et al. Long-term clinical outcomes in survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus outbreaks after hospitalization or ICU admission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Rehabil Med. 2020;52(5). doi:10.2340/16501977-2694
  14. Inoue S, Hatakeyama J, Kondo Y, et al. Post‐intensive care syndrome: its pathophysiology, prevention, and future directions. Acute Med Surg. 2019;6(3):233-246. doi:10.1002/ams2.415
  15. Halpin SJ, McIvor C, Whyatt G, et al. Postdischarge symptoms and rehabilitation needs in survivors of COVID-19 infection: A cross-sectional evaluation. J Med Virol. 2021;93(2):1013-1022. doi:10.1002/jmv.26368
  16. Heywood WE, Doykov I, Hällqvist J, Gilmour KC, Grandjean L, Mills K. “The long tail of Covid-19” - The detection of a prolonged inflammatory response after a SARS-CoV-2 infection in asymptomatic and mildly affected patients. F1000Research. 2021;9. doi:10.12688/f1000research.27287.2
  17. Calder PC. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes. Nutrients. 2010;2(3):355-374. doi:10.3390/nu2030355
  18. Zabetakis I, Lordan R, Norton C, Tsoupras A. Covid-19: The inflammation link and the role of nutrition in potential mitigation. Nutrients. 2020;12(5). doi:10.3390/nu12051466
  19. Dourado D, Freire DT, Pereira DT, et al. Will curcumin nanosystems be the next promising antiviral alternatives in COVID-19 treatment trials? Biomed Pharmacother. 2021;139:111578. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111578
  20. Shaik Y, Caraffa A, Ronconi G, Lessiani G, Conti P. Impact of polyphenols on mast cells with special emphasis on the effect of quercetin and luteolin. Cent Eur J Immunol. 2018;43(4):476-481. doi:10.5114/ceji.2018.81347
  21. Davis JM, Murphy EA, Carmichael MD. Effects of the dietary flavonoid quercetin upon performance and health. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2009;8(4):206-213. doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181ae8959
  22. Agrawal PK, Agrawal C, Blunden G. Quercetin: Antiviral Significance and Possible COVID-19 Integrative Considerations. Nat Prod Commun. 2020;15(12):1-10. doi:10.1177/1934578X20976293
  23. Picard M, McEwen BS, Epel ES, Sandi C. An energetic view of stress: Focus on mitochondria. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2018;49:72-85. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2018.01.001
  24. De Flora S, Balansky R, La Maestra S. Rationale for the use of N-acetylcysteine ​​in both prevention and adjuvant therapy of COVID-19. FASEB J. 2020;34(10):13185-13193. doi:10.1096/fj.202001807
  25. Halpin SJ, McIvor C, Whyatt G, et al. Postdischarge symptoms and rehabilitation needs in survivors of COVID-19 infection: A cross-sectional evaluation. J Med Virol. 2021;93(2):1013-1022. doi:10.1002/jmv.26368
  26. Qin S, Zheng J hong, Xia Z huan, Qian J, Deng C liang, Yang S lin. CTHRC1 promotes wound repair by increasing M2 macrophages via regulating the TGF-β and notch pathways. Biomed Pharmacother. 2019;113:108594. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2019.01.055
  27. Xu Y, Schnorrer P, Proietto A, et al. IL-10 Controls Cystatin C Synthesis and Blood Concentration in Response to Inflammation through Regulation of IFN Regulatory Factor 8 Expression. J Immunol. 2011;186(6):3666-3673. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1001934
  28. Zhao Y, Qin L, Zhang P, et al. Longitudinal COVID-19 profiling associates IL-1RA and IL-10 with disease severity and RANTES with mild disease. JCI Insight. 2020;5(13). doi:10.1172/jci.insight.139834
  29. Wong TL, Weitzer DJ. Long COVID and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)-A Systemic Review and Comparison of Clinical Presentation and Symptomatology. Medicine (Kaunas). 2021;57(5):418. doi:10.3390/medicine57050418
  30. Depeint F, Bruce WR, Shangari N, Mehta R, O'Brien PJ. Mitochondrial function and toxicity: Role of the B vitamin family on mitochondrial energy metabolism. Chem Biol Interact. 2006;163(1-2):94-112. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2006.04.014
  31. Wesselink E, Koekkoek WAC, Grefte S, Witkamp RF, van Zanten ARH. Feeding mitochondria: Potential role of nutritional components to improve critical illness convalescence. Clin Nutr. 2019;38(3):982-995. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2018.08.032
  32. Nicolson GL. Mitochondrial dysfunction and chronic disease: Treatment with natural supplements. Integr Med. 2014;13(4):35-43. Accessed May 17, 2021. /pmc/articles/PMC4566449/
  33. Mahoney DE, Hiebert JB, Thimmesch A, et al. Understanding D-Ribose and Mitochondrial Function. Adv Biosci Clin Med. 2018;6(1):1. doi:10.7575/aiac.abcmed.v.6n.1p.1
  34. Nordvig AS, Fong KT, Willey JZ, et al. Potential Neurological Manifestations of COVID-19. Neurol Clin Pract. 2021;11(2):e135-e146. doi:10.1212/cpj.00000000000000897
  35. Mazza MG, De Lorenzo R, Conte C, et al. Anxiety and depression in COVID-19 survivors: Role of inflammatory and clinical predictors. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;89:594-600. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.07.037
  36. Caronna E, Ballvé A, Llauradó A, et al. Headache: A striking prodromal and persistent symptom, predictive of COVID-19 clinical evolution. Cephalalgia. 2020;40(13):1410-1421. doi:10.1177/0333102420965157
  37. Xie Y, Bowe B, Maddukuri G, Al-Aly Z. Comparative evaluation of clinical manifestations and risk of death in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 and seasonal influenza: cohort study. BMJ. 2020;371. doi:10.1136/bmj.m4677
  38. Vindegaard N, Benros ME. COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;89:531-542. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.048
  39. Baldini T, Asioli GM, Romoli M, et al. Cerebral venous thrombosis and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Neurol. 2021;00:1-13. doi:10.1111/jan.14727
  40. Varatharaj A, Thomas N, Ellul MA, et al. Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19 in 153 patients: a UK-wide surveillance study. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(10):875-882. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30287-X
  41. Wostyn P. COVID-19 and chronic fatigue syndrome: Is the worst yet to come? Med Hypotheses. 2021;146:110469. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110469
  42. Pappa S, Ntella V, Giannakas T, Giannakoulis VG, Papoutsi E, Katsaounou P. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;88:901-907. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.026
  43. Kuszewski JC, Howe PRC, Wong RHX. An exploratory analysis of changes in mental well-being following curcumin and fish oil supplementation in middle-aged and older adults. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):1-13. doi:10.3390/nu12102902
  44. Wen Y, Yan Q, Pan Y, Gu X, Liu Y. Medical empirical research on forest bathing (Shinrin-yoku): A systematic review. Environ Health Prev Med. 2019;24(1). doi:10.1186/s12199-019-0822-8
  45. Cases J, Ibarra A, Feuillère N, Roller M, Sukkar SG. Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Med J Nutrition Metab. 2011;4(3):211-218. doi:10.1007/s12349-010-0045-4
  46. Hidese S, Ogawa S, Ota M, et al. Effects of L-Theanine administration on stress-related symptoms and cognitive functions in healthy adults: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrients. 2019;11(10). doi:10.3390/nu11102362
  47. Chang SM, Chen CH. Effects of an intervention with drinking chamomile tea on sleep quality and depression in sleep disturbed postnatal women: A randomized controlled trial. J Adv Nurs. 2016;72(2):306-315. doi:10.1111/jan.12836
  48. McElvaney OJ, McEvoy NL, McElvaney OF, et al. Characterization of the inflammatory response to severe COVID-19 Illness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202(6):812-821. doi:10.1164/rccm.202005-1583OC
  49. Coker RK, Laurent GJ, Jevery PK, Bois RM Du, Black CM, Mcanulty RJ. Localization of Transforming Growth Factor 1 and 3 MRNA Transcripts in Normal and Fibrotic Human Lung. Accessed May 5, 2021. www.thoraxjnl.com
  50. Nalbandian A, Sehgal K, Gupta A, et al. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Nat Med. 2021;27(4):601-615. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01283-z
  51. Kinnula VL, Crapo JD. Superoxide dismutases in the lung and human lung diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167(12):1600-1619. doi:10.1164/rccm.200212-1479SO
  52. Katsoulis K, Kontakiotis T, Baltopoulos G, Kotsovili A, Legakis IN. Total antioxidant status and severity of community-acquired pneumonia: Are they correlated? Breathing. 2005;72(4):381-387. doi:10.1159/000086252
  53. Van Schayck CP, Dekhuijzen PNR, Gorgels WJMJ, et al. Are anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory treatments effective in different subgroups of COPD? A hypothesis. Respir Med. 1998;92(11):1259-1264. doi:10.1016/S0954-6111(98)90225-6
  54. Grandjean EM, Berthet P, Ruffmann R, Leuenberger P. Efficacy of oral long-term N-acetylcysteine ​​in chronic bronchopulmonary disease: A meta-analysis of published double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clin Ther. 2000;22(2):209-221. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(00)88479-9
  55. Mahmoodpoor ​​A, Hamishehkar H, Sanaie S, et al. Antioxidant reserve of the lungs and ventilator-associated pneumonia: A clinical trial of high dose selenium in critically ill patients. J Crit Care. 2018;44:357-362. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2017.12.016
  56. Manzanares W, Biestro A, Torre MH, Galusso F, Facchin G, Hardy G. High-dose selenium reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia and illness severity in critically ill patients with systemic inflammation. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37(7):1120-1127. doi:10.1007/s00134-011-2212-6
  57. Siddiq MAB, Rathore FA, Clegg D, Rasker JJ. Pulmonary rehabilitation in COVID-19 patients: A scoping review of current practice and its application during the pandemic. Turkish J Phys Med Rehabil. 2021;66(4):480-494. doi:10.5606/TFTRD.2020.6889
  58. Gu S, Chen Y, Wu Z, et al. Alterations of the gut microbiota in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 or H1N1 influenza. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(10):2669-2678. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa709
  59. Zuo T, Zhan H, Zhang F, et al. Alterations in Fecal Fungal Microbiome of Patients With COVID-19 During Time of Hospitalization until Discharge. Gastroenterology. 2020;159(4):1302-1310.e5. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.06.048
  60. Zuo T, Zhang F, Lui GCY, et al. Alterations in Gut Microbiota of Patients With COVID-19 During Time of Hospitalization. Gastroenterology. 2020;159(3):944-955.e8. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.048
  61. Budden KF, Gellatly SL, Wood DLA, et al. Emerging pathogenic links between microbiota and the gut-lung axis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2017;15(1):55-63. doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.142
  62. Pan L, Mu M, Yang P, et al. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: A descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020;115(5):766-773. doi:10.14309/ajg.00000000000000620
  63. Ejtahed HS, Hasani-Ranjbar S, Siadat SD, Larijani B. The most important challenges ahead of microbiome pattern in the post era of the COVID-19 pandemic. J Diabetes Metab Disord. Published online 2020:1. doi:10.1007/s40200-020-00579-0
  64. Rook GAW. Hygiene hypothesis and autoimmune diseases. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2012;42(1):5-15. doi:10.1007/s12016-011-8285-8
  65. Eder W, Ege MJ, von Mutius E. The Asthma Epidemic. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(21):2226-2235. doi:10.1056/nejmra054308

Leave a comment